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Otto Lowenstein was born May 7, 1889, in Osnabruck, Germany. He began his college education in philosophy and mathematics at the University of Gottingen but transferred to the University of Bonn and finished in medicine in 1914. After service in the Army during World War I, he returned to Bonn as a neuropsychiatric assistant to psychiatrist and neurologist Alexander Westphal. He was chief of staff and the Neuropsychiatric Hospital of Bonn University from 1920 to 1926 and founded the Neuropsychiatric Hospital for Children, which is still in operation and is believe to be the first of its kind in the world. Lowenstein and his wife and co-researcher Dr. Marta Grunewald Lowenstein moved to Switzerland in 1933 and then to New York in 1939, where he was associated with New York University and Columbia Presbyterian Hospital. He is known for his work on pupillography and its uses in neurology and psychiatry. Dr. Lowenstein died on March 25, 1965, of pancreatic cancer.
Matilda Benyesh-Melnick, MD, was born on February 7, 1926 in Russe, Bulgaria. She earned her medical degree from Hebrew University, Hadassah Medical School in 1952. She moved to Houston with her husband, Dr. Joseph L. Melnick, in 1958. In 1976 she began her residency in psychiatry at Baylor College of Medicine. At Baylor College of Medicine she held professorships in both the Department of Virology and Epidemiology as well as the Department of Psychiatry. She worked closely with her husband on his research on poliomyelitis as well as conducting her own research in myoplasma and it's relationship with cancer development in certain animals. Dr. Benyesh-Melnick died July 19, 2020, in Houston.
John Stirling Meyer was born February 24, 1924, in London, England. He earned a scholarship to the Kent School in Connecticut when he was 16, during World War II, which got him out of London. H earned his BS at Trinity College in Hartford, Connecticut, a Master’s from the Montreal Neurological Institute, and an MD and CM from McGill University. He completed his training at Yale University and later earned additional degrees in neurology and psychiatry, neurophysiology, and neuropathology from Harvard.
Dr. Meyer became a US citizen (in 1952?) when he was needed for the Korean War. He was drafted by the Navy and sent to the Pacific, where he was put in charge of head injuries, first on hospital ships and then at the US-commandeered Yokosuka Hospital in Japan.
He returned to Harvard for a few years and then in 1957, when he was only 33, he became a founding professor and chairman of neurology at Wayne State University School of Medicine. At the time, he was the youngest person ever to hold the position as chair and professor of a medical department in the United States.
Dr. Meyer worked on the President’s Commission on Heart Disease, Cancer, and Stroke under both Kennedy and Johnson, and came to Houston to Baylor College of Medicine after catching the attention of Michael DeBakey. Dr. Meyer wrote or edited 30 textbooks and 930 articles. He retired from Baylor as a professor emeritus but was still working at United Neurology when he died on February 17, 2011. He is buried at St. John the Divine Episcopal Church Cemetery in Houston.
Hilde Bruch was born in Dulken, Germany on March 11, 1904; her family was Jewish. An uncle encouraged her to study medicine and she graduated from Albert Ludwig University with a doctorate in 1929. She took academic and research positions with the University of Kiel and then the University of Leipzig, but left academia for private pediatric practice in 1932 because of rising anti-Semitism. She had already begun a career in pediatric physiology before she left Germany in 1933 after Hitler came into power. She then spent a year in England, where she worked at the East End Maternity Hospital, which served a Jewish community in an impoverished part of London. She moved to the United States in 1934 and worked at the Babies’ Hospital at the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center in New York City. She obtained her American medical license in 1935 and, in 1937, began research on childhood obesity, the beginning of her career studying eating disorders. She became an American citizen in 1940.
From 1941 to 1943 Bruch studied psychiatry at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore before returning to New York to open her own psychiatric practice and teach at Columbia University. She took a position in psychiatry at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston in 1964 and remained in Houston for the rest of her life. She died on December 15, 1984.
Joanne Greenberg was born in Brooklyn, New York, on September 24, 1932. She is best known for the 1964 novel I Never Promised You A Rose Garden, a semi-autobiographical account of her psychiatric treatment at Chestnut Lodge in Rockville, Maryland, and eventual diagnosis of, at the time, schizophrenia. Her primary psychiatrist, Dr. Frieda Fromm-Reichmann, consulted with Dr. Hilde Bruch, who had more experience with adolescent patients, at the beginning of Greenberg’s treatment in the late 1940s.
- Corporate body
The Texas Research Institute of Mental Sciences was founded as a Baylor College of Medicine project in 1955 and funded by the state legislature in 1957 as the Houston State Psychiatric Institute for Research and Training. It was under the administrative management of the Board for Texas Hospitals and Special Schools, with the requirement that it act as the research and training branch of the state mental health and intellectual disability service system. TRIMS originally occupied a mansion on Baldwin Street, borrowed from M.D. Anderson Cancer Center (then M.D. Anderson Hospital); the research laboratories were in the carriage house. (Side note: Was this the Baker Estate?) It moved into its own building in 1961. That building, recognizable for its Midcentury design that featured series of arches in its roofline and glass exterior tile, was demolished in 2010 and the Institute moved into the Behavioral and Biomedical Sciences Building near Old Spanish Trail and Cambridge Street. The hospital branch was relocated to a nearby building in 1968 but the 1961 building continued to house the offices and library. The TRIMS name was adopted in 1967. A 1985 scandal relating to the validity of research data prompted a reorganization and transfer to the UT Health Science Center, during which it was renamed the University of Texas Mental Sciences Institute. The service role of the UTMSI has decreased since the 1980s but it continues to perform research and provide training in a wide variety of disciplines.
Irvin Alan Kraft was born in Huntington, West Virginia, on November 20, 1921. He attended from Johns Hopkins University but interrupted his education to join the army. He qualified for the Army Specialized Training Program and volunteered to become a doctor, which meant completing two years of pre-medical courses in nine months. His unit studied at NYU School of Medicine and he completed his residency in psychiatry at Kingsbridge VA Hospital in New York City. After a second tour of duty in the Air Force, he received a fellowship in child psychiatry at Tulane University in 1954. He moved to Houston in 1957 to initiate a child psychiatry program at Baylor College of Medicine. He later joined the UT School of Public Health as a clinical professor of mental health.
Kraft was instrumental in founding the Texas Institute of Child Psychiatry in 1963. He worked with Denton Cooley in 1968 as a psychiatric consultant to the heart transplant team. He died May 30, 2010, and is buried at Emanu El Memorial Park.
- Corporate body
Charles Fredrick (C. F.) Menninger, MD (also known as Dr. C. F. and CFM), began the Menninger Clinic in 1925. Although not initially a trained psychiatrist, he had an interest in psychiatry and is considered a pioneer in the then-emerging field. Two of his sons specialized in psychiatry at medical school and joined him in operating the clinic. Karl Augustus Menninger, who recently had graduated from medical school, joined him in the clinic late that same year. His son William Claire Menninger, Karl's younger brother, joined the clinic in 1927. Dr. Karl and Dr. Will, as the brothers were known, became leaders in the field. Dr. Karl managed the medical side of the clinic, while Dr. Will managed the finances and administration as the CEO. When Dr. Will died unexpectedly in 1966, Dr. Karl briefly took over as CEO before Dr. Will's son Roy Menninger, MD, known as Dr. Roy, was elected CEO. When Dr. Roy retired in 1993, his younger brother, William Walter (Walt) Menninger, known as Dr. Walt, succeeded him. John McKelvey succeeded Dr. Walt in 2001, and Dr. Walt was named chairman of The Menninger Foundation board of trustees. Menninger moved to Houston in 2003 after it formed an affiliation with The Methodist Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine.
Dr. Kanellos Charalampous was born in Greece in 1931. He attended Texas Christian University and majored in biology and chemistry. Later, he was accepted into Baylor College of Medicine. He began his rotating internship at Houston City Hospital and began his residency at Baylor. In his post-graduate career, he worked in the development and research of psychopharmacology. [Citation: Biographies, and 2015 December 24. KANELLOS CHARALAMPOUS: CONFRONTING THE ZEITGEIST by Barry Blackwell and Kanellos Charalampous (2015): 1-27. International Network for the History of Neuropsychopharmacology. 24 Dec. 2015. Web.]
Dr. Eugen Kahn was born in Stuttgart, Germany, on May 20, 1887. He was educated at Heidelberg, Berlin, and then at Munich, receiving his MD in 1911. He spent the next 18 years in Munich as an assistant and associate on the staff of the Psychiatric Clinic, in close association with Dr. Emil Kraepelin.
In 1930 Dr. Kahn went to Yale University, where he served not only as Sterling Professor of Psychiatry and Mental Hygiene but as Chairman of the Department of Psychiatry until 1946. He also served as Psychiatrist-in-Chief of the New Haven Hospital.
Dr. Kahn then moved to Switzerland, where he remained until 1951. In that year he returned to America, coming to Baylor College of Medicine in Houston Texas to serve on the full-time staff of the Department of Psychiatry as a Professor until 1962; for one of those years he served as Acting Chairman of the Department. After 1962 he was Professor Emeritus at Baylor. During his 22 years in Houston, Dr. Kahn was a research associate in psychiatry at the Houston State Psychiatric Institute (Texas Research Institute of Mental Sciences/ University of Texas Mental Sciences Institute) and a consultant in psychiatry at the Veterans Administration Hospital.
Dr. Kahn's entire career was spent in teaching, research, and scholarly activities. He read and wrote on a broad range of topics. He published at least 120 papers, hundreds of book reviews, and four books, the best know of which is Psychopathic Personalities. The last book, The Past Is Not Past, was published in 1962.
Adapted from American Journal of Psychiatry 130:7, 822, July 1973.
- Corporate body
The Harris County Psychiatric Center opened in 1986 and became the psychiatric wing of the UT Health Science Center at Houston in 1990; it serves as the teaching hospital for the McGovern Medical School. Except for the outpatient ECT clinic, it provides inpatient care only and runs specialized programs to address a long list of concerns. Outpatients are referred to the NeuroPsychiatric Center at Ben Taub Hospital or to a Mental Health and Mental Retardation Association clinic. It serves the community both directly and through the Harris County jail and juvenile detention systems, school districts, and many other educational, legal, and health and development-focused institutions.
Born in 1935, Dr. Daniel L. Creson was in in private practice with North Texas Psychiatry and Psychotherapy in Denton, Texas. He was Professor Emeritus at The University of Texas Health Science Center - Houston in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. He served there as Clinical Professor and Director of Continuing Education before his retirement in 2003. He was Board Certified by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology in 1971.
Dr. Creson received his medical degree from The University of Texas Medical Branch-Galveston, Texas in 1962. He earned an MA in Behavioral Science and a PhD in Anthropology from Rice University, Houston Texas. He holds academic appointments at Galveston Family Institute, The University of Texas Medical Branch - Galveston and The University of Texas Health Science Center - Houston. Among his past positions, he served as Adjunct Associate Professor at Tulane University, Executive Director of Gulf Coast Regional Mental Health-Mental Retardation Center, and Medical Director of Mental Health Mental Retardation Authority of Harris County.
Dr. Creson was active on several boards of mental health mental retardation organizations in Galveston and Houston as well as several committees for the Texas Society of Psychiatric Physicians. He has been a member of the Crisis Response Consortium of Harris County and Burn Disaster Response Team for Shriners Burn Institute. In addition to his past work in crisis situations throughout the world, he continues to serve as consultant to Humanitarian Aid and Medical Development (HMD) and Christian Children's Fund. Dr. Creson was instrumental in the development of an historical archives project, which seeks to document the history of mental health services in Texas. He personally obtained oral histories from many psychiatrists and other professionals throughout Texas.
Dr. Creson died November 30, 2015, in Sanger, Texas.
Born October 18, 1918 on a farm in Taylor, Texas; his grandparents were Czech immigrants. He graduated from Granger High School at 16 in 1934 and then from the University of Texas in 1939. He earned his MD from the University of Texas Medical Branch in December 1942, and then interned at Hermann Hospital in 1943. He served in the US Army Medical Corps from December 1943 to December 1946, as a lieutenant colonel and then a colonel. During his service, he graduated from the School of Military Neuropsychiatry. He was a resident in psychiatry at Southwestern Medical School in Dallas from November 1946 to June 1947 and at the Menninger School of Psychiatry, then located in Topeka, Kansas, from 1947 to 1949.
Dr. Pokorny joined the staff at the Houston VA Hospital in 1949 and became Chief of the Psychiatry Service in 1955; he remained at the VA until 1973. He was also part of the Baylor College of Medicine Department of Psychiatry from 1949 until his retirement in 1989. He was active in numerous professional organizations and won several awards for his contributions. He died October 9, 2007, just shy of his 89th birthday.
Evelyn Jane Hawkins Preston was born in Houston on November 21, 1920; she was a third-generation Texan. She graduated from Baylor College of Medicine in 1953 and practiced in Houston until 1978, then in Austin between 1978 and 1995, when she retired and returned to her hometown. Dr. Preston was a pioneer of telemedicine. She died November 7, 2001, just shy of her 81st birthday.
Alan Bruce Cooper was born in New York, New York on August 19, 1928. He earned a BS in 1949 and a Master’s in immunogenetics in 1951 from Wesleyan University, followed by an MD in 1955 from New York Medical School. After serving as chief of pathology at Harvard University, he joined the Air Force. After his discharge as a major, he taught at Baylor College of Medicine and New Orleans Psychoanalytic Institute in psychiatry and psychoanalysis. He was also in private practice in Houston between 1968 and 1985. In 1986, Dr. Cooper was appointed medical director of the University of Texas Adult Ambulatory Psychiatric Services and was later a professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. He died in Houston on December 29, 2002, of lung cancer.
Dr. Robert Guynn graduated from Michigan State University and went to medical school to receive his MD from Johns Hopkins University. He completed his internship for general internal medicine at Case-Western Reserve University/Lakeside Hospital in Cleveland, Ohio. He completed his residency in psychiatry at the Henry Phipps Clinic of the Johns Hopkins Hospital. He spent a three-year fellowship in the U.S Public Health Service doing biochemical and metabolic research. He is the current chair of the Scientific Program Committee for the annual meeting of the American Psychiatric Association. [Source: School, McGovern Medical. "Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences." The University of Texas Medical School. N.p., n.d. Web.]