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Schull, William Jackson
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Study of Inbreeding of Island Kuroshima

The first few minutes comprised mostly of medical testing. The rest of the film comprised of a trip to Kuroshima island (ten miles west of Sasebo, Nagasaki Prefecture) for some more medical testing and documentation of residents for inbreeding. There is no sound.

ABCC Photograph Collection

  • IC 099
  • Collection
  • 1946-1980

The ABCC Photograph Collection consists of photographs of various sizes of staff, survivors, buildings, and events that pertain to the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The vast majority of the photographs are black and white and in good condition. The dates of the photographs range from 1946 to the 1970s. The collection is in one series, with the photographs housed in envelopes and totals nine boxes. The collection provides photographic evidence of the destruction and injuries caused by the atomic bombs, and how the Japanese and allied doctors and military personnel worked together and the cultural exchanges that occurred. The photographs focus on the staff and the different things they did with their Japanese counterparts and not of the survivors that they studied. The photographs are in good condition. Some photographs have corners that are bent or have been crumpled. Others have come off of the backing they were glued to. There are some photographs that have yellowed or have some discoloration on them.

Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission

ABAA KAKEN records [RESTRICTED]

  • IC 102
  • Collection
  • 1945-2016

The ABAA KAKEN records is a restricted collection. It contains digital materials on an external hard and some paper material. Consultation with an archivist is required to access this collection.

ABAA KAKEN

Howard B. Hamilton, MD papers

  • MS 066
  • Collection
  • 1945-1997

The Howard B. Hamilton, MD, papers, MS 066, includes material from 1945-1997 related to the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). Hamilton was the Chief of Clinical Laboratories for the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission from 1956 until its dissolution in 1975. He served in the same capacity for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, which succeeded the ABCC, until 1984. This collection encompasses this period of time in Dr. Hamilton's career, as well as his related scholarly work after his retirement from RERF. Dr. Hamilton donated his collection of letters, reprints, newspaper articles, photographs, memos, and ephemera to the John P. McGovern Historical Collections and Research Center between 1985 and 2002. The collection is in good condition and consists of 3.75 cubic feet (8 boxes).

This collection contains eight series: I. Correspondence; II. Memorandum, Notes, Books; III. Conferences, Congresses, Manuscripts; IV. Reprints; V. Newspaper Articles; VI. Akio Awa Cartoons; VII. Additional Correspondence; VIII. Addendum Series. This collection contains many reprints of articles Hamilton wrote or co-wrote on topics including the structure and function of hemoglobin, biochemical genetics, and the long term after-effects of exposure to ionizing radiation. One highlight of the collection is a series of cartoons, Series VI, created by Hamilton's friend Dr. Akio Awa that gives a unique look into the daily goings-on of the ABCC and RERF. Another collection highlight is the photographs in the Addendum Series, Series VIII, which includes images of former United States Senator Ted Kennedy who visited RERF in the late 1970s. Photos also include group photos from many ABCC and RERF conferences and events.

This collection was donated to the Historical Research Center over a number of years, and the material was processed at different times by different people, which resulted in several different organizational schemes being used. During the most recent processing of the collection the arrangement of the material was left unchanged to maintain continuity and for the sake of scholarly citations that may have been made previously

Hamilton was born in Oak Park Illinois on December 4, 1918. He graduated from the University of Rochester in New York in 1941 and from Yale University School of Medicine in 1945. Hamilton served in the United States Navy from 1942-1945, during World War II. In the late 1940s and early 1950s Hamilton conducted research at Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard University, the Long Island School of Medicine, the New York College of Surgeons, and the University of Tokyo in Japan.

In 1956 Hamilton moved to Hiroshima, Japan, where he lived for the next thirty years. After his move to Japan, Hamilton served as the Chief of Clinical Laboratories for the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) from 1956 until its dissolution in 1975. Hamilton worked in the same capacity for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), which succeeded the ABCC, until 1984. Between 1984 and 1986 Dr. Hamilton began transitioning into retirement; he continued to work as a consultant for the RERF during this time.

Hamilton was a consummate scholar and published extensively thoughout his career. Hamilton published papers on topics including endocrinology, steroid chemistry, enzyme kinetics, hemoglobinopathies, the structure and function of hemoglobin, genetic polymorphisms, biochemical genetics, the long term after-effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, and epidemiology of cardio-vascular disease.

Hamilton's hobbies included playing tennis and practicing the Japanese theatrical art of Noh, which features dramatic masks and carefully defined movements. After his retirement, Dr. Hamilton catalogued Noh and Kabuki works and published Noh plays. In some circles, Dr. Hamilton was known as much for his enthusiastic patronage and participation in Noh as he was for his work with the ABCC and RERF. (Source: Washington Post, May 9, 2007)

Hamilton died on May 9, 2007 at his home in Falls Church, Virginia. He was 88 years old.

The collection is in good to excellent condition depending on the age of the individual item and how carefully it was stored and preserved in the years before it entered the HRC's collection. Dr. Hamilton donated his large collection of letters, reprints, newspaper articles, photographs, memos, and ephemera to the John P. McGovern Historical Collections and Research Center between about 1985 and 2002. The collection consists of 3.75 cubic feet (8 boxes) and is collection MS 066.

Hamilton, Howard B.

William J. Schull, PhD papers

  • MS 067
  • Collection
  • 1945-2014

MS 67 the William J. Schull papers contains correspondence, interoffice memorandums, presentations, scientific works, journal reprints, monograph drafts, report drafts, travel diaries, travel receipts and itineraries, travel ephemera, other printed material, news clips, exhlbit material, photographs, 35 mm slides, audios tapes, video tapes, film, maps and realia in eighty-six cubic feet of material documenting his the life and works. Over 60 percent of the collection documents his life and work at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in Japan. Twenty five percent of the collection contains papers from his work for various governmental and non-governmental bodies about the effects of ionizing radiation. Another 8 cubic feet contains lbs from his personal life. Dr. Schull created travel diaries about the many international trips required for his work. The collection contains 62 typewritten travel diaries as well as many lbs of travel ephemera, mainly from Japan, collected by Dr. Schull. Dr. Schull wrote several books and the collection contains copies of the historical documents and photographs used in the creation of his books, notably "Song Among The Ruins," his memoir about his time at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission. The major theme of this collection is epidemiological and genetic scientific innovation used to quantify the threat posed to the human race by ionizing radiation; to establish the probability of health outcomes to alleviate the fear of survivors, especially about the health of unborn generations; and to provide governments with facts about the consequences of the use of atomic weapons for war and nuclear energy for industrial purposes.

In addition to the records for ABCC and RERF (1945-2014), organizations with a large number of records in the collection include: ICRP, International Commission On Radiological Protection (1980-1995); ICRHER, International Consortium For Research On The Effects of Radiation (1990-2002); UNSCEAR, United Nations, Scientific Committee On The Effects Of Atomic Radiation (1987); WHO, United Nations World Health Organization, Health Effects of Chernobyl Accident (1990s); United States Department of Energy, Advisory Council On Nuclear Facility Safety (1990); United States Environmental Protection Agency, Science Advisory Board, Radiation Advisory Committee (1984-1990); and BRER, United States National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Board On Radiation Effects Research (1990s).

While the material is generally in good condition, some of the material suffered flood damage during tropical storm Allison in 2001. Although archivists discarded several lbs that could not be salvaged, they did preserve some material that may have value although flood damage is evident. With the damaged papers, some pages may be stuck together and handwritten notes may be faded beyond recognition. This damaged material is limited to four folders in two boxes, including box 40 folder 1; and box 42, folders 1, 2 and 3.

Dr. Schull collected and preserved all of the material in this collection in the course of his professional career and private life from 1945 to 2014. The collection consists of approximately 135 boxes including oversize and audiovisual. It consists of approximately 86 cubic feet of material.

Schull, William Jackson

Carl F. Tessmer, MD papers

  • MS 068
  • Collection
  • 1945-1995

Dr. Tessmer served as the first Director of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC), NAS-NRC Field Agency, from 1948 to 1951. His archival collection relates to the origin and subsequent progress of the ABCC. The bulk of the material in his collection is administrative in nature. Included are semi-annual and annual reports, NAS and NRC committee reports, early negotiations, reports from the initial clinical surveys, published scientific reports and correspondence dating from 1947. Approximately, 300 photographs and 15 sets of negatives accompanied Dr. Tessmer's Collection. The photographs have since been moved, housed separately with the ABCC photograph collection, and have been cataloged. This collections is 7.125 linear feet (18 boxes).

Dr. Tessmer's Collection is essential for researchers studying the history of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and early radiation medicine. Also available is a taped interview with Dr. Tessmer conducted by Dr. Mary Winkler, which was recorded on December 6, 1985. The collection is open for research. Individuals interested in using the collection should contact the Director of the Historical Research Center or the Coordinator for the ABCC Collections.

The Carl F. Tessmer Collection contains publications from a number of government agencies, military branches and civilian organizations. They clearly illustrate the establishment and association with the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission. Dr. Tessmer served as the first Director of the ABCC. The papers are predominately administrative and are organized under the issuing agency. The strengths of the collection are the early reports and correspondence dating from 1947 to the mid-1950s. The scientific publications come in the form of abstracts and reprints from the 1970s and 1980s.

Unique to this collection are several maps of Post-War Japan, cultural publications and artifacts. Most of these publications are no longer available in Japan. e.g. Dr. Tessmer donated two lapel pins. The first is a Rotary International pin presented to him at the time he became an honorary member of the Hiroshima Rotary. The second is the ABCC pin. Which was designed to follow the widespread Japanese custom of a lapel pin to show association with a company or institution, and to assist with identification. It is made, incidentally, by one of the traditional Japanese methods of fine metal work. Essentially it involves incising the metal surface and hammering small filaments of gold into the clefts. It incorporates the proper Aesculapian figure. Worthy of note is the fact somewhat later ABCC members were told that the Japanese reacted a little unfavorably to the serpent portion. The concept of the pin was readily accepted by the early Japanese staff. Its subsequent use is unknown.

As stated in the introduction, Dr. Tessmer's photographs have been rehoused and cataloged as single items and in sets. The bibliographic records and holdings are in a machine readable format. The findings aid for the photographs are the following: traditional card files and computerized bibliographic records in online catalogs. All of the photographs are black and white and most were taken by Mr. Einhorn, photographer for the U.S. Army Signal Corps. These photographs provide a wonderful visual record of the establishment and early activities of the ABCC.

The collection is arranged in sixteen series: I. Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission Field Agency Committee on Atomic Casualties Division of Medical Sciences National Research Council - Reports II. United States Atomic Energy Commission - NYO III. Office of the Air Surgeon - NP IV. Magazine and Newspaper Articles V. Reports Prepared for Director of Defense Nuclear Agency VI. Abstracts and Reprints VII. 406th Medical General Laboratory VIII. Office of the Chief Surgeon Far East Command IX. National Research Council X. Ministry of Health and Welfare. Japanese Government XI. ABCC Correspondence and Reports XII. Cultural and Historical Publications on Japan XIII. Maps XIIII. Communications XV. Artifacts XVI. National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council XVII. ABCC Publications

The individual series are arranged under the alpha-numeric code given by the issuing agency, chronologically and alphabetically where applicable. Segments of the collection arrived with an established order. Where possible, the initial organization was retained. Dr. Tessmer wisely saved notes, draft copies, annotated versions and final printings of significant reports. This provides researchers a unique opportunity to explore the various stages for issued reports. His collection did not contain many duplicates or photocopies. All metal hinges, staples, and paper clips were removed. Archival bond was interleaved to keep related documents and attachments together. Where required, documents on acidic paper were photocopied onto archival bond paper and the originals discarded. Some fragile documents were placed in L-velopes to maintain their integrity and to help contain possible contaminants.

The collection includes correspondence with individuals, military officials, government departments and agencies from the United States and Japan, Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission Field Agency Committee on Atomic Casualties Division of Medical Sciences National Research Council, Office of the Air Surgeon, National Research Council, United States Atomic Energy Commission, National Academy of Science, Director of Defense Nuclear Agency, 406th Medical General Laboratory, Ministry of Health and Welfare Japanese Government, semi-annual reports, annual reports, quarterly reports, surveys, studies, discussions, magazine and newspaper articles, abstracts and reprints, memoranda, correspondence, interim reports, appendices, standing operating procedures, agency and department publications, travel publications, postcards, maps, telegraphs, programs, score and lyrics, artifacts, conference reports and photographs. There are some documents written in Japanese and a few in both English and Japanese. This is specifically noted in the inventory.

Abbreviations used include: ABCC - Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission Assoc - Association COM - Committee NAS - National Academy of Sciences NRC - National Research Council SCAP - Supreme Commander for the Allied Forces Sp - Special

Abbreviations for journal titles include: ACTA HAEMATOL. JPN. - Acta Haematology Japan Acta Obst et Gynaec Jap - Acta Obstetricia et Gynaecologica Japan Amer J Epidem - American Journal of Epidemiology Amer J Public Health - American Journal of Public Health Hum.Genet. - Human Genetics JADA - The Journal of the American Dental Association J Chron Dis. - Journal of Chronic Diseases J NATL CANCER INST. or JNCI - Journal of the National Cancer Institute J RADIAT. RES. - Journal of Radiation Research

Series Description

I. Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission Field Agency Committee on Atomic Casualties Division of Medical Sciences National Research Council - Reports, 3 Boxes These reports are arranged chronologically. Most of the semi-annual reports were issued in two parts - part 1 is research and part 2 is administration. They date from 1 July 1951 through 31 December 1953. Other annual reports, summaries and quarterly reports that make-up this series date from 1950 and 1951. The semi-annual report in folder is accompanied by a handwritten note to C. Tessmer. The cover of the semi-annual report in folder 11 is labelled "corrected" and is accompanied by a typed memorandum from Dr. Frank H. Connell.

II. United States Atomic Energy Commission - NYO, 2 Boxes The publications in this series are files by NYO number. Recorded is the complete title, author and date. In some instance the TIS Issuance Date is given. NYO-4469 in folder 15 is stamped "Unclassified", initialled and dated 2/21/57. Printed are round table discussions by the survivors, bibliographies, medical examinations and follow-up studies. Included are three growth and development program studies by Earle L. Reynolds.

III. Office of the Air Surgeon, 2 Boxes There are five volumes of reports in this series dated April 19, 1951. They are filed by NP number. Entitled : Medical Effects of Atomic Bomb. The Report of the Joint Commission on the Effects of the Atomic Bomb in Japan. Army Institute of Pathology.

IV. Magazine and Newspaper Articles, 1 Box The three articles filed in this series illustrates the continued interest in the atomic bomb survivors by the general population. The publications are : Life magazine, Empire: the magazine of the Denver Post and The Pittsburgh Press.

V. Reports Prepared for Director of Defense Nuclear Agency, 1 Box These reports are filed alphabetically. They all date from the early 1980s. Of the seven reports field in this series the first four are technical reports and the last three are final reports. Military focus.

VI. Abstracts and Reprints, 1 Box This single box contains 37 separate articles. They are filed alphabetically by title. All date from the late 1970s and the 1980s. The primary topic is the health of the a-bomb survivors and their offspring.

VII. 406th Medical General Laboratory, 1 Box Two public health reports are filed here. One is on the black flies of Japan and Korea.

VIII. Office of the Chief Surgeon Far East Command, 1 Box A published report from the office on parasitic mites is filed here.

IX. National Research Council, 1 Box Memorandum to the Committee on Atomic Casualties are filed here. This committee helped lay the groundwork for the foundation of the ABCC. It was created in 1947.

X. Ministry of Health and Welfare. Japanese Government. 1 Box The Japanese National Institute of Health of Minstry of Health and Welfare formally joined the studies of the ABCC in 1948. A single administrative public health report is filed here.

XI. ABCC Correspondence and Reports, 2 Boxes This is one of the most outstanding series of this collection. Filed here are correspondence and interim reports leading to the establishment of the ABCC - primarily to and from the General Headquarters Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers. Public Health and Welfare Section. Discussed is the need for the ABCC, the funding, and continued support. There are letters from Dr. H. Grant Taylor to Dr. Tessmer. Dr. Taylor succeeded Dr. Tessmer as the Director of ABCC. Included are annotated copies of reports issued by Dr. Tessmer as ABCC Director. The first clinical studies by ABCC scientists are filed here. Some are preliminary reports, status surveys - marked not for publications and studies that include letters from the authors and sets of photographs. This is indicated on the inventory. The photographs were sleeved, labelled and left with pertinent correspondence, manuscripts, drafts, or reports.

XII. Cultural and Historical Publications on Japan, 1 Box This series is unique to the collection. Dr. Tessmer has collected tourist information printed in Occupied Japan. Included are guides, postcards, maps, published photographs, booklets. The cities of Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Tokyo and Nikko Shrine are represented.

XIII . Maps, 1 Box Some of the maps were issued by the United States Air Force and others by the Japanese Travel Bureau. All are folded and some have legends in both English and Japanese. This has been noted in the inventory.

XIV. Communications, 1 Box In this series are filed Japanese Telegraphs and materials from the Hiroshima Rotary Club. The Hiroshima Rotary Club conducted a program on September 27, 1949.

XV. Artifacts, 1 Box An ABCC lapel pin and part of a Rotary International lapel pin are boxed in this series. A description of the pins can be found in the second paragraph of the Organization section of this guide.

XVI. National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council, 1 Box, The reports, memoranda, and meeting programs in this series are from the 1950s. Accompanying some of the reports are handwritten notes. The reports are scientific, admistrative and procedural. The provisional analysis of the Tumor Registry Data, committee reports from visits to the ABCC, the Unified Study Program can be found here.

Important subjects: Army Institute of Pathology, Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission Field Agency Committee on Atomic Casualties Division of Medical Sciences National Research Council, artifacts, atomic calculations, atomic medicine, congenital and hereditary abnormalities, consanguinity, culture, cytogenetics, Defense Nuclear Agency, 406th Medical General Laboratory, genetics, hematology, Hiroshima, Japan, Japanese Institute of Health. Ministry of Health and Welfare, Nagasaki, National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Office of the Air Surgeon, Office of the Chief Surgeon Far East Command, radiation, Rotary International, SCAP, serology, Tokyo, United States Atomic Energy Commission vital statistics.

Among the authors and correspondents are : H. Grant Taylor, William J. Schull, Paul G. Filmore, Seymour Jablon, Felix E. Moore, R. Keith Cannan, John C. Bugher, James V. Neel, Lowell A. Woodbury, Robert M. Hupsel, Morihiro Ishida, Robert W. Miller, Robert F. Poole , Jr., Neal Tsukifuji, Werner Wells, Wm. Walter Greulich, John J. Lentz Jr., Melvin A. Block, Raisuke Shirabe, T. Fujii, K. Tsuchitori, M. Oishi, Herman E. Pease, Merril Eisenbud, John S. Lawerence, Philip S. Owen, Daniel Noce, Lewis H. Weed, Wataru W. Sutow, Michinori Hamada, Sadahisa Kawamoto, Earle L. Reynolds.

Tessmer, Carl F.

Gilbert Beebe, PhD papers

  • MS 100
  • Collection
  • 1957-2001

The Gilbert Beebe, PhD papers contains materials related to the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF).

Subjects: ABCC, Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission. Radiation Effects Research Foundation.

Beebe, Gilbert

William J. Schull, PhD Photograph Collection

  • MS 170
  • Collection
  • 1943-2014

The William J. Schull Photograph Collection, MS 170, contains photographic prints, positive and negative transparencies, and text ephemera from Dr. Schull's career and many international travels as a global scientific research consultant in the effects of radiation and human genetics and connoisseur of the world's cultures. Dr. Schull collected and preserved all of the material in this collection in the course of his professional career and private life from 1945 to 2014. The images and text reflect Dr. Schull's appreciation for each land's beauty and the uniqueness of its people, crafts, architecture and attire along with the many friends he cultivated in every place he worked. The collection is organized by geographic location in loose archival photo and slide sleeves or in scrapbooks. Geographical areas represented include Japan, Europe and The Middle East; Latin American and South America; Asia, Australia, and South Pacific countries; and the United States. Usually accompanied by his wife, Vicki Schull, the images capture the many activities of their lives as international travelers and residents in Japan. These images add color and detail to the travel diaries located in MS 67 The William J. Schull, PhD Papers, also in the McGovern Historical Collection. The major theme of this collection is to add an important element of humanity and location to Dr. Schull's scientific career in the form of faces, places, and traditional cultures meeting the new atomic age.

About 50% of the material contains images from Dr. Schull's assignments at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). A highlight of the collection is the scrapbook given to Dr. Schull by the Emperor of Japan upon awarding him the Order of the Sacred Treasure, Third Class in 1992 for his long and honorable service to the Japanese people. Another scrapbook in the collection contains letters from many of Dr. Schull's peers at the ABCC and RERF commemorating activities in his career.

About 40% of the collection contains images from Vicki and Jack Schull's travels and work in other geographies along with group portrait images of their many friends and family. An important 10% of the collection contains scientific lecture slideshows from Dr. Schull's work in human genetics and the effects of ionizing radiation on human health.

The material in the collection is in excellent condition. Scrapbooks are in their original condition. Other material has been placed in archival photo and slide sheets and foldered in archival boxes.

The material frequently had notes from Dr. Schull that designated the location. Less frequently did he designate dates. During processing, the date printed during development was frequently used to date the material, if available. Otherwise, dates on signs, attire, or auto models, if visible, were used to approximate dates. Country names in brackets, for example [Switzerland], represent the project archivist's best guess as to the location. Numbers in brackets, for example [100], after each date represent the number of images in each folder. The collection consists of 12 boxes including 4 oversize boxes. It represents approximately 8 cubic feet of material

Schull, William Jackson

Kiyoko Minato papers

  • MS 207
  • Collection
  • April 4 - November 8, 2015

Thie Kiyoko Minato papers includes a letter, newspaper article photocopy, meeting minutes. Kiyoko Minato gave this collection of papers to Merry Uemoto to send to Dr. William Schull. Included are meeting minutes at the fourth ABCC/RERF History Forum in Nagasaki library, which was an interview of Ms. Kiyoko Minato and Ms. Hisae Tanaka about their time working as nurses for the ABCC, as well as a newspaper article about Philip Montgomery from the Chugoku newspaper. Ms. Uemoto discusses the two previously mentioned documents and discusses the cancellation of a meeting between Dr. Schull and Ms. Minato due to her health in a letter included in the collection. The newspaper article and meeting minutes are dated April 4th and 9th 2015 respectively, and the letter is dated November 8th, 2015. The collection contains one folder in the Small Manuscript Collection (SMS) box.

Minato, Kiyoko