- MS 068
Dr. Tessmer served as the first Director of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC), NAS-NRC Field Agency, from 1948 to 1951. His archival collection relates to the origin and subsequent progress of the ABCC. The bulk of the material in his collection is administrative in nature. Included are semi-annual and annual reports, NAS and NRC committee reports, early negotiations, reports from the initial clinical surveys, published scientific reports and correspondence dating from 1947. Approximately, 300 photographs and 15 sets of negatives accompanied Dr. Tessmer's Collection. The photographs have since been moved, housed separately with the ABCC photograph collection, and have been cataloged. This collections is 7.125 linear feet (18 boxes).
Dr. Tessmer's Collection is essential for researchers studying the history of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and early radiation medicine. Also available is a taped interview with Dr. Tessmer conducted by Dr. Mary Winkler, which was recorded on December 6, 1985. The collection is open for research. Individuals interested in using the collection should contact the Director of the Historical Research Center or the Coordinator for the ABCC Collections.
The Carl F. Tessmer Collection contains publications from a number of government agencies, military branches and civilian organizations. They clearly illustrate the establishment and association with the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission. Dr. Tessmer served as the first Director of the ABCC. The papers are predominately administrative and are organized under the issuing agency. The strengths of the collection are the early reports and correspondence dating from 1947 to the mid-1950s. The scientific publications come in the form of abstracts and reprints from the 1970s and 1980s.
Unique to this collection are several maps of Post-War Japan, cultural publications and artifacts. Most of these publications are no longer available in Japan. e.g. Dr. Tessmer donated two lapel pins. The first is a Rotary International pin presented to him at the time he became an honorary member of the Hiroshima Rotary. The second is the ABCC pin. Which was designed to follow the widespread Japanese custom of a lapel pin to show association with a company or institution, and to assist with identification. It is made, incidentally, by one of the traditional Japanese methods of fine metal work. Essentially it involves incising the metal surface and hammering small filaments of gold into the clefts. It incorporates the proper Aesculapian figure. Worthy of note is the fact somewhat later ABCC members were told that the Japanese reacted a little unfavorably to the serpent portion. The concept of the pin was readily accepted by the early Japanese staff. Its subsequent use is unknown.
As stated in the introduction, Dr. Tessmer's photographs have been rehoused and cataloged as single items and in sets. The bibliographic records and holdings are in a machine readable format. The findings aid for the photographs are the following: traditional card files and computerized bibliographic records in online catalogs. All of the photographs are black and white and most were taken by Mr. Einhorn, photographer for the U.S. Army Signal Corps. These photographs provide a wonderful visual record of the establishment and early activities of the ABCC.
The collection is arranged in sixteen series: I. Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission Field Agency Committee on Atomic Casualties Division of Medical Sciences National Research Council - Reports II. United States Atomic Energy Commission - NYO III. Office of the Air Surgeon - NP IV. Magazine and Newspaper Articles V. Reports Prepared for Director of Defense Nuclear Agency VI. Abstracts and Reprints VII. 406th Medical General Laboratory VIII. Office of the Chief Surgeon Far East Command IX. National Research Council X. Ministry of Health and Welfare. Japanese Government XI. ABCC Correspondence and Reports XII. Cultural and Historical Publications on Japan XIII. Maps XIIII. Communications XV. Artifacts XVI. National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council XVII. ABCC Publications
The individual series are arranged under the alpha-numeric code given by the issuing agency, chronologically and alphabetically where applicable. Segments of the collection arrived with an established order. Where possible, the initial organization was retained. Dr. Tessmer wisely saved notes, draft copies, annotated versions and final printings of significant reports. This provides researchers a unique opportunity to explore the various stages for issued reports. His collection did not contain many duplicates or photocopies. All metal hinges, staples, and paper clips were removed. Archival bond was interleaved to keep related documents and attachments together. Where required, documents on acidic paper were photocopied onto archival bond paper and the originals discarded. Some fragile documents were placed in L-velopes to maintain their integrity and to help contain possible contaminants.
The collection includes correspondence with individuals, military officials, government departments and agencies from the United States and Japan, Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission Field Agency Committee on Atomic Casualties Division of Medical Sciences National Research Council, Office of the Air Surgeon, National Research Council, United States Atomic Energy Commission, National Academy of Science, Director of Defense Nuclear Agency, 406th Medical General Laboratory, Ministry of Health and Welfare Japanese Government, semi-annual reports, annual reports, quarterly reports, surveys, studies, discussions, magazine and newspaper articles, abstracts and reprints, memoranda, correspondence, interim reports, appendices, standing operating procedures, agency and department publications, travel publications, postcards, maps, telegraphs, programs, score and lyrics, artifacts, conference reports and photographs. There are some documents written in Japanese and a few in both English and Japanese. This is specifically noted in the inventory.
Abbreviations used include: ABCC - Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission Assoc - Association COM - Committee NAS - National Academy of Sciences NRC - National Research Council SCAP - Supreme Commander for the Allied Forces Sp - Special
Abbreviations for journal titles include: ACTA HAEMATOL. JPN. - Acta Haematology Japan Acta Obst et Gynaec Jap - Acta Obstetricia et Gynaecologica Japan Amer J Epidem - American Journal of Epidemiology Amer J Public Health - American Journal of Public Health Hum.Genet. - Human Genetics JADA - The Journal of the American Dental Association J Chron Dis. - Journal of Chronic Diseases J NATL CANCER INST. or JNCI - Journal of the National Cancer Institute J RADIAT. RES. - Journal of Radiation Research
I. Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission Field Agency Committee on Atomic Casualties Division of Medical Sciences National Research Council - Reports, 3 Boxes These reports are arranged chronologically. Most of the semi-annual reports were issued in two parts - part 1 is research and part 2 is administration. They date from 1 July 1951 through 31 December 1953. Other annual reports, summaries and quarterly reports that make-up this series date from 1950 and 1951. The semi-annual report in folder is accompanied by a handwritten note to C. Tessmer. The cover of the semi-annual report in folder 11 is labelled "corrected" and is accompanied by a typed memorandum from Dr. Frank H. Connell.
II. United States Atomic Energy Commission - NYO, 2 Boxes The publications in this series are files by NYO number. Recorded is the complete title, author and date. In some instance the TIS Issuance Date is given. NYO-4469 in folder 15 is stamped "Unclassified", initialled and dated 2/21/57. Printed are round table discussions by the survivors, bibliographies, medical examinations and follow-up studies. Included are three growth and development program studies by Earle L. Reynolds.
III. Office of the Air Surgeon, 2 Boxes There are five volumes of reports in this series dated April 19, 1951. They are filed by NP number. Entitled : Medical Effects of Atomic Bomb. The Report of the Joint Commission on the Effects of the Atomic Bomb in Japan. Army Institute of Pathology.
IV. Magazine and Newspaper Articles, 1 Box The three articles filed in this series illustrates the continued interest in the atomic bomb survivors by the general population. The publications are : Life magazine, Empire: the magazine of the Denver Post and The Pittsburgh Press.
V. Reports Prepared for Director of Defense Nuclear Agency, 1 Box These reports are filed alphabetically. They all date from the early 1980s. Of the seven reports field in this series the first four are technical reports and the last three are final reports. Military focus.
VI. Abstracts and Reprints, 1 Box This single box contains 37 separate articles. They are filed alphabetically by title. All date from the late 1970s and the 1980s. The primary topic is the health of the a-bomb survivors and their offspring.
VII. 406th Medical General Laboratory, 1 Box Two public health reports are filed here. One is on the black flies of Japan and Korea.
VIII. Office of the Chief Surgeon Far East Command, 1 Box A published report from the office on parasitic mites is filed here.
IX. National Research Council, 1 Box Memorandum to the Committee on Atomic Casualties are filed here. This committee helped lay the groundwork for the foundation of the ABCC. It was created in 1947.
X. Ministry of Health and Welfare. Japanese Government. 1 Box The Japanese National Institute of Health of Minstry of Health and Welfare formally joined the studies of the ABCC in 1948. A single administrative public health report is filed here.
XI. ABCC Correspondence and Reports, 2 Boxes This is one of the most outstanding series of this collection. Filed here are correspondence and interim reports leading to the establishment of the ABCC - primarily to and from the General Headquarters Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers. Public Health and Welfare Section. Discussed is the need for the ABCC, the funding, and continued support. There are letters from Dr. H. Grant Taylor to Dr. Tessmer. Dr. Taylor succeeded Dr. Tessmer as the Director of ABCC. Included are annotated copies of reports issued by Dr. Tessmer as ABCC Director. The first clinical studies by ABCC scientists are filed here. Some are preliminary reports, status surveys - marked not for publications and studies that include letters from the authors and sets of photographs. This is indicated on the inventory. The photographs were sleeved, labelled and left with pertinent correspondence, manuscripts, drafts, or reports.
XII. Cultural and Historical Publications on Japan, 1 Box This series is unique to the collection. Dr. Tessmer has collected tourist information printed in Occupied Japan. Included are guides, postcards, maps, published photographs, booklets. The cities of Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Tokyo and Nikko Shrine are represented.
XIII . Maps, 1 Box Some of the maps were issued by the United States Air Force and others by the Japanese Travel Bureau. All are folded and some have legends in both English and Japanese. This has been noted in the inventory.
XIV. Communications, 1 Box In this series are filed Japanese Telegraphs and materials from the Hiroshima Rotary Club. The Hiroshima Rotary Club conducted a program on September 27, 1949.
XV. Artifacts, 1 Box An ABCC lapel pin and part of a Rotary International lapel pin are boxed in this series. A description of the pins can be found in the second paragraph of the Organization section of this guide.
XVI. National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council, 1 Box, The reports, memoranda, and meeting programs in this series are from the 1950s. Accompanying some of the reports are handwritten notes. The reports are scientific, admistrative and procedural. The provisional analysis of the Tumor Registry Data, committee reports from visits to the ABCC, the Unified Study Program can be found here.
Important subjects: Army Institute of Pathology, Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission Field Agency Committee on Atomic Casualties Division of Medical Sciences National Research Council, artifacts, atomic calculations, atomic medicine, congenital and hereditary abnormalities, consanguinity, culture, cytogenetics, Defense Nuclear Agency, 406th Medical General Laboratory, genetics, hematology, Hiroshima, Japan, Japanese Institute of Health. Ministry of Health and Welfare, Nagasaki, National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Office of the Air Surgeon, Office of the Chief Surgeon Far East Command, radiation, Rotary International, SCAP, serology, Tokyo, United States Atomic Energy Commission vital statistics.
Among the authors and correspondents are : H. Grant Taylor, William J. Schull, Paul G. Filmore, Seymour Jablon, Felix E. Moore, R. Keith Cannan, John C. Bugher, James V. Neel, Lowell A. Woodbury, Robert M. Hupsel, Morihiro Ishida, Robert W. Miller, Robert F. Poole , Jr., Neal Tsukifuji, Werner Wells, Wm. Walter Greulich, John J. Lentz Jr., Melvin A. Block, Raisuke Shirabe, T. Fujii, K. Tsuchitori, M. Oishi, Herman E. Pease, Merril Eisenbud, John S. Lawerence, Philip S. Owen, Daniel Noce, Lewis H. Weed, Wataru W. Sutow, Michinori Hamada, Sadahisa Kawamoto, Earle L. Reynolds.
Tessmer, Carl F.