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Otto Lowenstein was born May 7, 1889, in Osnabruck, Germany. He began his college education in philosophy and mathematics at the University of Gottingen but transferred to the University of Bonn and finished in medicine in 1914. After service in the Army during World War I, he returned to Bonn as a neuropsychiatric assistant to psychiatrist and neurologist Alexander Westphal. He was chief of staff and the Neuropsychiatric Hospital of Bonn University from 1920 to 1926 and founded the Neuropsychiatric Hospital for Children, which is still in operation and is believe to be the first of its kind in the world. Lowenstein and his wife and co-researcher Dr. Marta Grunewald Lowenstein moved to Switzerland in 1933 and then to New York in 1939, where he was associated with New York University and Columbia Presbyterian Hospital. He is known for his work on pupillography and its uses in neurology and psychiatry. Dr. Lowenstein died on March 25, 1965, of pancreatic cancer.